It is a problem that affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills. It hinders the body's ability to move in a coordinated and purposeful way. It also can affect other body functions that involve motor skills and muscles, like breathing, bladder and bowel control, eating, and talking. CP often is caused by brain damage that happens before or during a baby's birth, or during the first 3-to-5 years of a child's life. Brain damage also can lead to other issues, like sight, hearing, and learning problems.
Delayed milestone, also called developmental delays, is used to describe the condition where a child does not reach one of these stages at the expected age. However, in most cases, a wide variety of ages can be considered normal, and not a cause for medical concern.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.
Muscular dystrophy is a collection of muscle-wasting conditions. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common type. A lack of a protein called dystrophin is the main cause of muscular dystrophy. Gene therapies are currently being trialed to combat the disease. There is currently no cure for muscular dystrophy. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin.
It is one of the most common and complex congenital deformities. The incidence of idiopathic clubfoot is estimated to be 1 to 2 per 1,000 live births. [ 1] The deformity has four components: ankle equinus, hindfoot varus, forefoot adductus, and midfoot cavus.
It is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord. There are three main types: spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele. The most common location is the lower back, but in rare cases it may be the middle back or neck.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. It affects how a person acts and interacts with others, communicates, and learns. It includes what used to be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders.